“A complete step-by-step guide to recognise
and deal your smartphone addiction”
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy’s Theoretical Model and Smartphone Addiction
Chemical and Non-Chemical Addiction: Two Faces of the Same Dice
Common Features of Addiction
Treating Non-Chemical Addiction
Key Factors to be considered in Addiction
Introducing Indigenously Adapted Cognitive
Behavioral Therapy for Smartphone Addiction (IACBT-SA)
Goal-setting & Behavioral Intervention
Concept of Goal-setting in Therapeutic Process
Training Client to set Feasible and Appropriate Goals
Functional Behavioral Analysis
Concept of Behavioral Activation
Chart to monitor activities
Introduction to alternate religious and social behaviors
Techniques of Relaxation Therapy
Training on Specific Relaxation Skills
Digital Detox (48 hours)
Make a Plan for Implementation
Maladaptive Thoughts, Intermediate Beliefs and Core Beliefs
Learning how to identify Maladaptive (Negative) Automatic Thoughts
Cognitive Distortions Associated with Smartphone Addicts
Challenging and Managing Maladaptive Thoughts and Beliefs
Instructions for Religious Scriptures Usage:
Coping Statement Cards
Harm Reduction Therapy
Additional Techniques: For Clinicians and Clients
Steps Involved in the Management of Time Effectively: For Clinician
Techniques for Problem Solving
Implementing Indigenously Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Twelve Sessions for Treating Smartphone Addiction
Structuring the Techniques into 12 Sessions
Daily Smartphone Log
Automatic Thought Record Sheet For IACBT-SA
Smartphone addiction develops over time until the stage comes where it is consuming most of the time from a person’s daily hours. There is this phase of addiction where people start neglecting sleep and diet hence suffering from physical and mental tiredness. People at this stage clearly require therapeutic help to heal themselves and return back to balanced lifestyle. Switching to a positive lifestyle means finding certain ways that take you away from technology to improve your emotional and physical well-being.
It is a reality that few drugs like cannabis tend to increase peoples’ work efficiency, lifts up their mood and enhance creativity level. Normally people having undesirable life conditions are more vulnerable into falling for addictions than others. Individuals get relief and satisfaction from the addictions to get rid of anxiety, tension and boredom. For most of the people, it is also a source of making new social circle in which the only requirement for acceptance is to get addicted. Addiction often starts voluntarily but causes the addict to face difficulty in stopping it permanently. They, on one hand deny life problems while on the other hand, tend to link their conditions to something other than addiction. With the increase in the intensity of the problem, their decision to use stuff increases too.
Sudden withdrawal from the use of substance (referring to smartphones or technology use here) or material produces intolerable side effects which is one of the common factors of addiction or substance maintenance. However, such impacts vary from individual to individual and substance to substance. One of the major hindrances to stop addiction revolves around dysfunctional beliefs such as “I can’t be happy unless I use”. Drug or substance termination is seen as a deprivation of satisfaction and comfort or a threat to the well-being or personal functions (Jennings, 1991). Stopping may mean, for some, removing the “security blanket”.
This book is written with an intent to guide the beginners that how they can practically carryout the therapeutic work with the clients, session by session in a highly structured manner. There is a long standing debate on whether the session should highly be structured or not. Our position regarding this issue is that there should be a semi structured therapeutic model with the “highly structured guidelines”. This provides the opportunity to the therapist, where they can evaluate themselves. It is however necessary to interpret the “highly structured guidelines” term with caution. It doesn’t contemplate that the clinician is bound to remain within the structure or the limit of the sessions, if they need, they can deviate from it by having a strong reason to meet the current demands of the client.
For beginners, it is pertinent that a structured guideline possessing session by session aims, steps and outcomes is available. Therefore, they can easily implement the strategies provided by Indigenously Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy – Smartphone Addiction (IACBT-SA) and at the same time evaluate their own progress in the treatment. Similarly, due to the lack of trained mental health professionals’ particularly psychologists, it is better to have structured and easily understandable therapeutic intervention, which can easily be understood and practiced by social workers, psychiatrists and psychiatrist nurses to address the highly prevalent addiction. Thus, we have attempted to provide the session by session progress and guidelines for the therapists. The first four sessions focus on the behavioral intervention, the fifth to the eighth sessions address the cognitive restructuring and the ninth to the twelfth session address harm reduction.
According to Prochaska, Diclemente & Norcoss (1992), seeking help is carried out through five stages. In the first stage, individuals even do not admit to themselves that they have an issue or problem; this stage is referred as precontemplative stage. The individual seems willing to admit their complications, yet do not want to stop using on their own will is called as contemplative stage. Individuals in the preparation stage intend to take action to terminate their substance or material use, but are uncertain about being able to follow through. In the action stage, the person behaviorally demonstrates a decrease in their substance use and responds to therapeutic intervention. Those who are successful enough to reach the maintenance stage had already taken great strides towards a substance free life, and are actively working to maintain consistency in this endeavor over a period of months and years.
There is a substantive difference among the term ‘habit’ and addiction. Certain repetitive habits such as smoking when frustrated, cannot be referred as a need, but an instant reaction to a related situation is known as an urge. An interval among the stimulus and the consumption is chained to the urges and cravings, whereas, the chain becomes vigorous with continual repetition. The addiction is a dysfunctional and compulsive habit as compared to other adaptive habits involving skills such as driving. Moreover, addiction is based on involuntary acts, whereas skilled habits are voluntary judgments. The term ‘drug habit’ can be referred as a contradiction due to the difference in everyday habit and use.
This book addresses customized cognitive and behavioral intervention that focuses on Smartphone addiction, therefore the clinician’s role here is to actively develop insight in the client that the presenting symptoms are directly related to the excessive and compulsive use of Smartphone. Moreover, it also includes the associated problems with excessive Smartphone usage (for example, relationship problems, academic performance and time management etc.). Once the list of the goals has been established, the next step is to determine the most central issues that cause concern and arrange them from most important to least important. Furthermore, identifying and sequencing action steps involve breaking each goal into smaller steps to help the client know what to do at every stage of accomplishing the goal without feeling overwhelmed by any huge task. The goals are recognized and ordered and are operated in accordance to its importance. It also involves defining the goal and all the steps taken to achieve it in concrete, observable/measurable cognitive or behavioral terms.
Cognitive behavior therapy aims to change maladaptive thoughts, feelings and behaviors into positive and healthy ones. It also lessens excessive emotional reactions and self-defeating thoughts by altering the distorted thinking pattern and negative beliefs that underlie these reactions (Beck, 1976). The approach to a particular client is derived from detailed conceptualization of a particular case. It is a short-term goal oriented psychotherapy that takes hands on practical approach towards problem solving. Its goal is to focus on the “here and now”, and current problems which he/she is facing. The approach shall meet these points; there must be a collaborative relationship between therapist and client, therapist should be empathetic and an active listener and the therapy should be ordered and focused.
In present days, where people use Smartphone more excessively, with the passage of time different symptoms of addiction become more apparent in their behaviors. The psychological and health problems that cognitive approach addresses include anger, irritability, low level of tolerance, problems in sleep, concentration and interpersonal issues. The basic aim of the therapy is to help people become less reliant on their Smartphones and combat their symptoms described above.
There are several techniques that can be used to challenge dysfunctional thoughts or beliefs. Most of them are used in conjunction with a thought record. Challenging thoughts and beliefs in a collaborative way allows the clients to use their own statements to counter dysfunctional thinking. Generating counter-statements based on the data of the clients brought to these session increases the believability of the thoughts/beliefs and, thus, the effectiveness of the counter thoughts/beliefs.